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G0ABK9 3>ABL 2 A5<59AB25 @8=>2 (  , D>=4 0B:>20).</p><p> 5B@ 02;>28G 0H:>2 (1763-1831) @>48;AO 8 C<5@ 2 >A:25. :>=G82 !CE>?CB=K9 H;OE5BA:89 :>@?CA, A 1770 ?> 1800 33. A;C68; 2 @07=KE ?5E>B=KE ?>;:0E, CG0AB2>20; 2 2>9=0E A "C@F859 8 2KH5; 2 >BAB02:C 35=5@0;-<09>@><. , 2848<>, 2A:>@5 ?>A;5 MB>3> 65=8;AO =0 0B0;L5 >@8A>2=5.  1@0:5 1K;> B@>5 45B59, 425 4>G5@8 ==0 8 :0B5@8=0 8 AK= 025;. >B><:8 AK=0 ?@>A;56820NBAO 2?;>BL 4> 1917 3.  0 AC4O ?> D0<8;8O< 70:07K202H8E A>>B25BAB2CNI55 0@E82=>5 45;> - 8 4> =0H53> 2@5<5=8. 0< ?>:0 =58725AB=0 40B0 A<5@B8 0B0;L8 >@8A>2=K  2>7<>6=>, C<8@05B >=0 =5 2 >A:25. (&. $>=4 >A:>2A:>3> 42>@O=A:>3> 45?CB0BA:>3> A>1@0=8O.)</p><p>  2>?@>AC > ?@>B82=>9 0B0;8 - AC4O ?> 2A5<C, >=8 A !>DL59 5>=BL52>9 ?>4@C38. 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"0:, 1C4CG8 >B?@02;5= A @5287859 ?>GB>2KE AB0=F89 ?> B@0:BC >A:20  830, >= B0:65 =0?8A0; ?CB52>48B5;L ?> 3>@>4C 835 (5AB5;L .. @8<5G0=8O > 3>@>45 835. ., 1798.)</p><p>  A5<L5 1K;> H5AB5@> 2K682H8E 45B59, B@8 4>G5@8 8 B@8 AK=0 (> 4>G5@OE A<. ?@8<5G0=85 3 : MB><C ?8AL<C). ==0 20=>2=0, 2 >B;8G85 >B <C60, @CAA:>9 3@0<>BK =5 7=0;0, 8 2 4>:C<5=B0E 70 =55 @0A?8AK20;8AL AK=>2LO 8;8 7=0:><K5. </p> <p><a name="015"><sup>15</sup></a>5>=BL52 8:>;09 8:>;0528G (1772-1830), 48?;><0B, ?>765 1K; =0 2>5==>-8=65=5@=>9 A;C615. 0<5@35@, 35=5@0;-<09>@. ! 1802 3.  A5:@5B0@L @CAA:>3> ?>A>;LAB20 2 50?>;5; 2 1805 3. ?5@52545= 2 @5745=.  1810-1815 33. 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B0:, O 65;0N 20< =0 MB>B =>2K9 3>4 ?@>4>;65=8O AG0ABLO, ?@8ACI53> 20H5<C 2>7@0ABC, @0728B8O 20H8E A?>A>1=>AB59 8 CA5@48O //;. 27 2 8A?>;=5=88 20H8E >1O70==>AB59. -B> 7=0G8B - 65;0BL 2 B> 65 2@5<O AG0ABLO 0?5=L:8, 0<5=L:8 8 <>53> A>1AB25==>3>. @>I09B5, 4@C3 <>9, >1=8<8B5 70 <5=O ;5:A0=4@0 8 A;548B5, GB>1K >= =5 C?0;, :>340, 45@60 53> 70 @C:C, 2K 70AB02;O5B5 53> E>48BL A;8H:>< 1KAB@>.</p> <div align="center"><i> A.Kroock </i></b></div> <h4> $. $. 48. ?. 1. . 478. . 26.</h4> <p>------------------</p></p><p> *1 0B0 2 ?8AL<5 >BACBAB2C5B. 0B8@>20=> =0 >A=>20=88 =>2>3>4=8E ?>65;0=89 8 C?><8=0=89 <0;>;5B=53> ;5:A0=@0 (1801 3.@.)</p><p> <br> <p><b>!>DLO 20=>2=0 5>=BL520  02;C 5AB5;N</p></b> <p>. 42. </p> <h5>[50?>;L, 1802-1805] (*1) </h5> <p>0 =5 1C45B B0:, <>9 <0;5=L:89 4@C3 >;L, GB>1K O >B?@028;0 ?8AL<> 20H59 0<5=L:5, =5 =0?8A02 20< B0:65 =5A:>;L:> AB@>G5:, GB>1K =0?><=8BL 20< > A515 8 ?>?@>A8BL 20A :@5?:> >1=OBL B@>8E 20H8E 1@0BL52 70 <5=O. 0?8H8B5 <=5, 4>@>3>9 <>9 >;L, ?@>HC 20A, 8 @0AA:068B5 <=5 ?>4@>1=> > 20H8E 70=OB8OE 8 @072;5G5=8OE. !C4O ?> B><C, GB> <=5 ?8H5B 20H0 01CH:0 @>:, O 286C, GB> 2K =5 B5@O5B5 2@5<5=8, 8 O 20A //;;. 42 >1. 70 MB> E20;N, <>9 <0;5=L:89 4@C3; B0: GB> 2K =0CG8B5AL @8A>20BL, 8 C 20A 4065 ?>O2OBAO C65 A2>8 @01>BK. >340 C 20A A>AB028BAO =51>;LH0O :>;;5:F8O, O =045NAL, 2K 2A?><=8B5 > 20H59 4>1@>9 "5BCH:5 !>D8, 8 >=0 ?>;CG8B 4>:070B5;LAB2> 20H59 4@C61K 2 2845 =51>;LH>3> @8AC=:0, :>B>@>9 2K 59 ?@8H;5B5, :0: B>;L:> ?@54AB028BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL. =5 B0: E>B5;>AL 1K A:070BL 20<, GB> <>9 <0;5=L:89 //;. 43 Lissandrino *2 20A >1=8<05B, => C2K! = =5 ?>=8<05B, GB> 5<C 2K?0;> AG0ABL5 8<5BL ?> 2A5<C A25BC <8;KE 8 4>1@KE <0;5=L:8E :C75=>2, A :>B>@K<8, =045NAL, >4=064K >= 1C45B 25A5;> 83@0BL. @>I09B5, <>O :0?CAB:0, <>8 @5?:8, <>8 <>@:>2>G:8 <a href="#016"><sup>16</sup></a>, O =56=> ?@868<0N 20A : A5@4FC, B0: 65 :0: 8 >@8A0, >;> 8 ;5:A0=4@0. !:068B5 <=5 A:>@55, GB> 2K <5=O ;N18B5 =5<=>6:>, 8 GB> 2K 2A?><8=05B5 //;. 43 >1. 8=>340 >1> <=5. @>ALB5AL 70 <5=O =0 H5N 20H5<C 0?5=L:5 8 0<5=L:5 8 <>8< <8;K< C78=0< <a href="#017"><sup>17</sup></a>. >F5;C9B5 70 <5=O @CG:C 54CH:5 8 01CH:5, 8 AG8B09B5 <5=O 2> 2AN 687=L, <>9 4>@>3>9 <0;5=L:89 >;L, 20H59 A0<>9 4>1@>9 ?>4@C3>9.</p> <div align="center"><i> /?>4?8AL/ </i></b></div> <p>------------------</p></p><p> *1 0?8A0=> 2> 2@5<O ?@51K20=8O 5>=BL52KE 2 B0;88 8 4> >BJ5740 1@0BL52 =0 CG51C 2 5@<0=8N. 5@>OB=55  2 =0G0;5 MB>3> ?@><56CB:0 2@5<5=8 (?> C?><8=0=8N ;5:A0=4@0 5>=BL520 O2=> 2 <;045=G5A:>< 2>7@0AB5).</p><p> *2 B0;LO=A:0O C<5=LH8B5;L=0O D>@<0 >B 8<5=8 ;5:A0=4@. </p>*<p> <p><a name="016"><sup>16</sup></a>N1>?KB=>, GB> B0:>5 65 >1@0I5=85 2AB@5G05BAO 2 ?8AL<5 55 <0B5@8 : =59 (2@5<5= ?CB5H5AB28O ?> (259F0@88). </p> <p><a name="017"><sup>17</sup></a><5NBAO 2 284C C?><O=CBK5 2KH5 B@8 A5AB@K 20=0 >@8A>28G0. </p> <br> <p><b>1804</b></p> <br> <p><b>.. 5AB5;L  02;C, >@8AC 8 ;048<8@C 5AB5;O<.</p></b> <p>. 10 >1. 4@5A>2:0: >8E 4>@>38< 4@C7LO< >;N, >@8AC 8 >;L45<0@C. 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"0< >= ?@>25; >:>;> H5AB8 <5AOF52. (0?8A:0 > A;C615 .. 5AB5;O, 8< A0<8< =0?8A0==0O // CAA:89 0@E82. 1875. ! 4. !. 373.) >-2848<><C, ?8AL<> =0?8A0=> 2A:>@5 ?> ?@81KB88. </p> <p><a name="019"><sup>19</sup></a>5@>H (8;8 45 >H) C?><O=CB 2 1802 3. 2 A?8A:5 D@0=FC7>2, =0E>4OI8EAO 2 >AA88, => 65;0NI8E ?@8 MB>< ?@8=5AB8 ?@8AO3C 0?>;5>=C :0: 5@2><C :>=AC;C, A>AB02;5==>< @>AA89A:8< 8=8AB5@AB2>< 8=>AB@0==KE 45;: >H, 2>A?8B0B5;L AK=0 A5=0B>@0 5AB5;O. (L. Pingaud. Les francais en Russie et les Russes en France. Paris, 1886. P. 469.) #G8BK20O C?><8=0=85 >4=>3> AK=0, @5GL, ?>-2848<><C 845B > AB0@H5< @515=:5  B.5. > 02;5.</p><p>  254><>AB8 >1 8=>AB@0=F0E, ?@>6820NI8E 2 /C7A:>9 G0AB8, >B D52@0;O 1812 3., C?><8=05BAO D@0=FC7 5>=0@ 5@>H, 682CI89 2 4><5 AB0BA:>9 A>25B=8FK >;E>2A:>9, >B CG51=KE 702545=89 A2845B5;LAB20 =5 8<55B - ?>-2848<><C, 5@>H 4020; C@>:8, =5 8<5O @07@5H5=8O >B CG51=>3> >:@C30.</p><p> (>A:20 8 B5G5AB25==0O 2>9=0 1812 3. =. I. ., 2011. !. 489.) </p> <br> <p><b>.. 5AB5;L  02;C, >@8AC 8 ;048<8@C 5AB5;O<.</p></b> <p>. 12 >1. 4@5A>2:0: >8< 4>@>38< @C7LO< >;N, >@8AC 2 >A:2C </p> <h5>070=L, 16 D52@[0;O] 1804 </h5> <p>>@>385 <>8 4@C7LO, >;L, >@8A 8 >;L45<0@, O 1;03>40@N 20A >B 2A53> A5@4F0 70 20H8 <8;K5 ?8AL<0 8 20H8 ?>74@02;5=8O : <>5<C 4=N @>645=8O.  / ?@>25; 53> 4>AB0B>G=> 3@CAB=>, B0: :0: O >B?@074=>20; A2>5 A>@>:0;5B85 240;8 >B 20A, <8;K5 4@C7LO, 8 >B 2A53>, GB> <=5 4>@>3>.</p><p> 52>7<>6=>, @C7LO <>8, GB>1K 2K <>3;8 B0: 65 A8;L=> 65;0BL, :0: 65;0N O, 25@=CBLAO : 20<.  >8 45;0 <5=O 70=8<0NB A0<K< =5?@8OB=K< >1@07><, 8 >=8 @0ABCB A :064K< 4=5<, B0: GB> O =5 <>3C =8:0: 5I5 ?@542845BL <><5=B <>53> >BJ5740 >BAN40.  / ?@8;030N 2A5 2>7<>6=K5 AB0@0=8O, GB>1K 8E 70:>=G8BL, ?>MB><C C <5=O =5B =8 >4=>9 A2>1>4=>9 <8=CBK, 8 2>B ?>G5<C O =5 <>3C ?8A0BL 20< B0: 4>;3>, :0: <=5 1K E>B5;>AL.</p><p> 5@5409B5 3>A?>48=C 5@>HC <>8 4@C65A:85 ?>65;0=8O, B0:65 3[>A?>48=C] 45 ">@80:C <a href="#020"><sup>20</sup> </a> 8 4 70@=C <a href="#021"><sup>21</sup>.</a></p><p> @>I09B5, 4>@>385 <>8 45B8, O 20A >1=8<0N 8 //;. 11 >1. 1;03>A;>2;ON, B0: 65 :0: 8 =0H53> <8;>3> 4@C30 ;5:A0=4@0, :>B>@><C O ?@>HC A:070BL, ?@5645 G5< 2K 70A2845B5;LAB2C5B5 5<C <>5 ?>GB5=85 <i>A:07K20;8 20< :;0=OBLAO 8 ?>F0;>20BL 20A >B ?0?8=L:8</i> (*1).</p><p> CABL >3 20A 1;03>A;>28B 8 40AB 20< 74>@>2L5.  !5@4F5< 8 4CH>9 20H A5@45G=K9 4@C3 8 =56=K9 >B5F</p> <div align="center"><i>Ivan Pestel</i></b></div> <p>-@07< <a href="#022"><sup>22</sup></a>, :>B>@K9 =08;CGH8< >1@07>< 745AL @072;5:05BAO, 20A ?@825BAB2C5B.</p> <h4> $. $. 48. ?. 1. . 477. '. 1. 0?. 1. ;. 11  11 >1.</h4> <p>------------------</p></p><p> * 1 "5:AB :C@A82><  ?>-@CAA:8</p><p> </p>*<p> <p><a name="020"><sup>20</sup></a>5 ">@80:  >48= 87 <>A:>2A:8E 7=0:><KE A5<59AB20 5AB5;59, A<. > =5< 2KH5, 2 ?@8<5G0=8OE : ?8AL<C >B 10 45:01@O 1801 3., 0 B0:65 2 A;54CNI5< ?@8<5G0=88. </p> <p><a name="021"><sup>21</sup></a>8:>=B $@0=AC0 >75D 4 70@= 8;;LD>@, D@0=FC7A:89 M<83@0=B, 2 >A:25 70=8<0;AO B>@3>2K<8 ?@54?@8OB8O<8, 2 B>< G8A;5 2<5AB5 A C?><O=CBK< 2 ?@54K4CI5< ?@8<5G0=88 45 ">@80:><.  D>=45 >A:>2A:>3> 3>@>4>2>3> <038AB@0B0 A>E@0=8;>AL 45;> 1811 3. > ?@5>1@07>20=88 A>2<5AB=>3> B>@3>2>3> ?@54?@8OB8O <>A:>2A:>3> ?5@2>9 38;L488 :C?F0 N4>28:0 ">@80:0 8 2B>@>9 38;L488 A8?0 70@=0, 2;045;LF52 B>@3>2>3> >1I5AB20 ?>4 D8@<>N ">@80: 8 :><?0=8O, 2 :>B>@>< B0:65 CG0AB2>20; =5:89 2B>@>9 38;L488 :C?5F $54>@ "8;L35@, 2 ?@54?@8OB85, ?@8=04;560I55 B>;L:> 42C< ?>A;54=8<, 0 ">@80:C 8 =0A;54=8:0< C65 45;0 4> =53> =5B. 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"KAOG0 4@C65A:8E ?@825B>2 3[>A?>40]< 5@>HC,  70@=C 8 0<?>@578 <a href="#029"><sup>29</sup></a>. !>E@0=8B5 20H8 4@C65A:85 GC2AB20 :> <=5, 8 @0AAG8BK209B5 =0 <>8 <div align="center"><i>A. Laraffe</i></b></div> <h4> $. $. 48. ?. 1. . 478. . 73.</h4> <p><a name="024"><sup>24</sup></a>5CAB0=>2;5==>5 ;8F>; AC4O ?> ?8AL<C, >48= 87 3C25@=5@>2 2 A5<L5 5AB5;59. 0==KE > =5< 2 <>A:>2A:8E 0@E820E =09B8 =5 C40;>AL. >-2848<><C, <>3 8<5BL A5<LN: 2?>A;54AB288 D0<8;8O 2AB@5G05BAO 2 20@80=B5 0DD. 0<>: 45 ;0 0DD, >B:C40 ?@>8AE>48;> MB> A5<59AB2>, =0E>48BAO 2 45?0@B0<5=B5 Q7 =0 A525@>-2>AB>:5 $@0=F88, 2 >B0@8=388.</p> <p><a name="025"><sup>25</sup></a>C4CI89 8<?5@0B>@ 5B@ I @>48;AO 30 <0O 1762 3. ">G=>5 <5AB> 53> @>645=8O =58725AB=>. > >4=>9 87 1KB>202H8E 25@A89, MB> ?@>87>H;> 2 ?>4<>A:>2=>< A5;5 >;><5=A:>5. !B>O2H89 2 >;><5=A:>< 45@52O==K9 42>@5F F0@O ;5:A5O 8E09;>28G0 C65 2> 2B>@>9 ?>;>28=5 XVIII 25:0 1K; 701@>H5= 8 @07@CH0;AO. ">G=> =58725AB=>, :>340 >= 1K; @07>1@0=; 2>7<>6=>, GB> 2 1804 3. 53> >AB0B:8 5I5 <>6=> 1K;> C2845BL. </p> <p><a name="026"><sup>26</sup></a> A?8A:0E 8=>AB@0=F52, ?@>6820NI8E 2 >A:25 2 1812 3>4C, 2 @5G8AB5=A:>9 G0AB8 C?><O=CB =5:89 =BC0= 0B>, ?@>6820NI89 2 4><5 :=O7O '5@:0AA:>3> C 3>A?>48=0 0BC@8=0 ?> 18;5BC 4@5A-:>=B>@K. %>BO B0< 65 C:070=>, GB> C =53> =5B >D8F80;L=>3> @07@5H5=8O =0 ?@5?>4020=85, A:>@55 2A53>, 8<5==> ?@5?>4020=85< >= B0< 8 70=8<0;AO. (>A:20 8 B5G5AB25==0O 2>9=0 1812 3. =830 2. ., 2011. !. 493.) </p> <p><a name="027"><sup>27</sup></a> >-2848<><C, MB> =5 D0<8;8O, 0 ?@>728I5 (0 B>G=55  D@0=FC7A:89 20@80=B 8<5=8, A<. 40;LH5). 045<C075;L Aime 5I5 @07 C?><8=05BAO 2 1805 3., ?@8 >BJ5745 45B59 2 5@<0=8N  G5@57 70?OBCN A :=O75< L5@>< O75<A:8<. "0:8< >1@07><, : ;5BC 1805 3. >=0 B>65 =0E>48;0AL 2 5B5@1C@35.</p><p>  ?5@5?8A:5 .. 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